All posts by Michael Bromley

Founder and President of LLC & The A+ Club, Bromley taught Social Studies for seven years at Archbishop Carroll High School in NE Washington, DC. Bromley is a historian, published author, entrepreneur, and dedicated teacher. LLC and The + Club are Bromley's expression of enthusiasm and love for students.

Where do we stand now?

I’ve kept quiet on the blog over the past couple years. I think I’ve been overwhelmed by so much to discuss and so little clarity on any of it.

Back in 2019 I was gearing up our SAT prep resources, as I was sick of seeing kids punished by lack of preparation or poor or very expensive guidance from tutoring centers and private tutors. Besides, the SAT verbal offers an excellent opportunity to teach kids grammar, which has mostly gone missing in their K-12 years and is missing altogether in college. (See my SAT, grammar, and other resources on the

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SAT test prep resources

A+ Club SAT test prep resources and links (update) 

Please  see the YouTube channel, Best SAT Verbal Prep Strategies & Approaches,  for a full set of videos reviewing and modeling SAT test Reading and Writing sections approaches and strategies.

Additionally, please visit the Teacher Lesson Planner and Student Study Guide Wiki has a section on SAT prep. Continue reading

SAT Test Essay strategies & approaches: rhetorical analysis, logic & how to write a great essay!

Michael reviews the SAT Essay section, instructions & requirements, approaches and strategies, how it is scored and general strategies & approaches for rhetorical analysis.


Please note that the College Board has canceled the SAT essay. The strategies outlined here for answering a test prompt are yet useful, so I encourage you to review the video and apply it to your other writing scenarios

In the first of three videos, Michael reviews the SAT Essay rhetorical analysis and how to approach the text and identify rhetorical and persuasive techniques. This video reviews general strategies and approaches and applies them to Essay Practice Test 1:

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How to Build & Apply History Knowledge to SAT Test Reading Section Historical Passages

Here Michael reviews strategies for approaching SAT Reading section historical passages by building core historical knowledge around dates and themes of major wars

By remembering dates of MAJOR WARS, students can easily contextualize SAT Reading passages as either before or after a certain war and, thus, historical themes and perspectives.

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How to approach the SAT test Writing Section: modeling approaches & strategies on practice test 10

Michael reviews general SAT Writing section approaches and strategies and punctuation and grammar rules, then models them on a passage from the College Board SAT Practice Test 10

Michael works through the 1st two passages of Practice Test 10 (questions 1-11. 12-22) with a live demonstration of actually taking that test on each passage:

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How to Approach the SAT test Reading Section: Modeling approaches & strategies on practice test 1

Michael models SAT Reading section techniques and strategies on a passage from the College Board SAT Practice Test 1

Michael works through the fourth passage of Practice Test 1 (questions 32-41) with a live demonstration of actually taking that test/ passage:

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Why Colleges are accepting more students for 2020-21 school year & offering more “scholarships”

Whether or not your high school senior has accepted a college admissions offer, please note that the Coronavirus shutdown has deeply impacted colleges, and they are increasing both their acceptance rate and offers of financial assistance/ scholarships.

As an experienced academic coach & mentor, I strongly recommend that you speak to your child’s preferred colleges and negotiate acceptance. And if your child has already accepted, speak to the school about reducing tuition.

The reason colleges are accepting more students is that the current crisis has changed the formulas colleges use to set acceptance rates in order match acceptances to actual spaces.

Setting accurate acceptance-to-applications ratio is crucial for colleges in order to:

  • not under- or over-fill available campus slots
  • maintain competitive ratings in college rankings, as metrics for those rankings include acceptance rates (the higher the acceptance rate the lower the ranking)

Given the uncertainties of the current shutdown, colleges do not know how many students they must accept in order to keep that crucial balance of admissions. They are assuming that fewer students will enroll in the fall semester, therefore they are increasing their admissions, despite the potential drawback on college rankings.

At the same time, colleges are offering incentives both to keep enrolled students and to entice new admissions to make up for potential lost students who may change their plans given the health and financial crisis.

If your college has not made a new offer for “scholarships” or reduced fees, it can’t hurt to ask. They need you as much as you may need or want them.

And speaking of “scholarships” — that term is used by colleges euphemistically to mask what it actually is, quite simply, a discount in price. In other words, when colleges offer, say, a $10,000 scholarship off of a $35,000 tuition, they are NOT giving you $10,000, they are simply reducing the price of tuition by that amount.

The distinction is crucial.

We tend to think of a scholarship as a gift instead of as a reduction in price from negotiation or a purchase opportunity. If scholarships were gifts, then colleges would book the original price as revenue, then offset that revenue with a comparable accounting entry as scholarships. But they don’t. The merely look at it as less revenue.

As they are focused on revenue and not scholarship amounts, colleges have a strong incentive to book a sale regardless of the price, just as do car dealerships.

In fact, the comparison is most apt when you consider that colleges, like auto dealers, operate from a sticker price that they have no intention of booking. For profitability colleges and dealers look to volume and add-ons and other fees to make up for lowered prices (aka “scholarships”).

The takeaway here is that EVERYTHING IS NEGOTIABLE. And even if you have already signed up for a school, it is not too late to ask for a discount — ahem, a scholarship– to make sure your child can still attend that school in the fall, hint, hint.

Let me know if I can help you figure this out. Glad to speak with no obligations on services.


Free Academic Needs Consultation

For an article on admissions, see Wall Street Journal:


The Bing Homepage on March 22 features “World Water Day,” a United Nations’ sponsored theme to promote awareness of the need for freshwater around the world.

* Above photo titled: ” Children getting water from the faucet in the slum area in Yauco, Puerto Rico,” 1942, Library of Congress

Thoughts of freshwater remind me about how lucky we are to have on-demand, clean water.

The lady who takes care of my 87 yo father-in-law is from Sierra Leone. She grew up in a small, rural village and had to walk several miles each day to get water from a well or a stream. It was dangerous and the water was often putrid.

It’s hard to imagine but even today yellow fever and malaria are prevalent in Africa and other third world regions and sicken millons and kill tens of thousands of people each year. During this time of the coronavirus, we may count our blessings that we don’t also face these other diseases which our nation conquered long ago.

Below is the story of how yellow fever and malaria were defeated. Meanwhile, when you turn on the faucet, say a little thanks for all the amazing ideas, people, and political systems that allow you clean water on demand.

How Yellow Fever and Malaria Were Defeated in the U.S., Cuba and Panama


  • History of disease
  • Use of geography in scientific research of disease


  • Cholera: bacterial infection that spreads through contaminated water or food, largely due to unsanitary conditions; cholera is rare now)
  • Yellow fever: a virus disease spread by a certain type of mosquito and that causes a yellowish tint to the skin due to liver damage; Yellow fever is eradicated from North America but still impacts Africa significantly, causing approx.. 45,000 deaths each year)
  • Plague: (a bacterial disease caused by Yersinia pestis and spread by fleas or exposure to an infected animal; the plague is rare, with about 600 cases per year)
  • Locus of infection: the geographic origin of a disease outbreak
  • Disease vector: the carrier or transmitter of a disease (such as a mosquito)
  • Pasteurization: mild heating of fresh water, milk, juice, wine and other foods that destroys pathogens while maintaining nutrients and allowing for greater shelf-life of the food or drink.
  • Germ Theory: the theory, developed in the mid-1800s, that identified a microorganism called pathogens, or germs, that cause infectious disease


Louis Pasteur: scientist who invented the pasteurization process and developed the Germ Theory

Maj. Walter Reed: U.S. Army physician who in 1900 identified the pathogen and vector of yellow fever transmission

Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg: U.S. Army physician who pioneered biomedicine in the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries

Dr. Carlos Finlay: Cuban physician who in 1870 proposed that mosquitos were the transmitting agent, or disease vector, of yellow fever

During a particularly bad cholera outbreak in London known as the “1854 Broad Street Outbreak,” British physician John Snow discovered that cholera is not an airborne disease but was spread by bad water. He isolated the source of the cholera to a public water pump that had been contaminated by sewers and was spreading cholera to people who drank from it. Until then, people thought that cholera was spread by the air or touch, as are some viruses. He proved it was ingested, and then used his knowledge of London geography to isolate the location of the pump based upon prevalence of illnesses in that section of the city.  (By tracking the location of crimes, police use this same method to catch criminals.)

Using a similar geographic approach, Maj. Walter Reed, a U.S. Army physician, confirmed that yellow fever had a different “disease vector” than previously thought. While stationed in Washington, D.C., Reed observed that Army troops who suffered from yellow fever were regularly hiking through swamps along the Potomac River. It was thought they suffered from yellow fever from drinking from the river (yuck!), but Reed confirmed that the river was not the disease vector, as others who drank from it (again, yuck!) but did not hike through the swamps did not get the disease. Reed didn’t know exactly why the swamps transmitted the disease, but he knew that hiking through the swamp was the one commonality of the soldiers who suffered from yellow fever.

The geographic source of an outbreak is known as “the locus of infection,” and pioneers such as Dr. Snow (who isolated the source of cholera in London) and Reed greatly advanced the science and treatment of disease through these observations.

Beforehand, people thought that diseases came from “vapors,” mud, or other things that had no relationship to the actual spread of disease, which often led to a worsening of outbreaks. For example, during the Medieval and Late Medieval periods in Europe, cats and snakes were considered “diabolic” and treated as pests to be removed. However, by ridding their towns of cats and snakes, the Europeans worsened the spread of the bubonic plague, which was carried by fleas and spread by rodents — which cats and snakes would have otherwise killed off. *

* Another devastating misunderstanding of science and causality led the Chinese government in 1958 to declare the “Eliminate Sparrows Campaign” to eradicate sparrows which they believed were capitalist pets and that were destroying crops. However, by killing off the birds, insects proliferated, including locusts, which destroyed crops and contributed to the Great Famine of 1959-61, in which millions of Chinese died.

Back to Walter Reed.

Reed’s superior, Surgeon General George Miller Sternberg, was a pioneer in the study of “bacteriology” and a follower of Louis Pasteur’s “germ disease theory” that had identified pathogens (a microorganism), or “germs,” as contributors to disease. (“Pasteurization” of milk and other foods that kill dangerous bacteria is named for Pasteur). General Sternberg sent Major Reed to Cuba, which the U.S. Army had occupied following the Spanish-American War, in order to further investigate yellow fever and other “tropical diseases” which were impacting U.S. personnel.

In the 1880s, the Cuban physician, Dr. Carlos Finlay, had hypothesized that mosquitoes from the genus Aedes were responsible for transmitting yellow fever by biting an infected person and then spreading it to someone else through another bite. Already aware of the locus of infection of yellow fever in the DC swamps, and familiar with Dr. Finlays’ ideas, Reed and the “U.S. Army Yellow Fever Commission” implemented a scientific process to identify the particular pathogen and disease vector of yellow fever. By deliberately exposing himself and a few others to yellow fever, Reed proved that the Aedes aegypti mosquito spread yellow fever bacterium through bites of an infected and then of another person. Now the path to eradication of yellow fever, proposed 20 years earlier by Dr. Finlay, was proved: mosquito control. As a result, yellow fever effectively disappeared from Cuba.

The U.S. Army then applied the strategy to Panama where the Canal was beginning construction. Previously, yellow fever and malaria there were thought to have come from the bad air of jungles and swamps of Panama.

An earlier French project (1881-94) to build an isthmus canal across Panama had failed in large part due to the high mortality rate of workers from malaria and yellow fever, having lost 200 workers a month. Ironically, at a “fever ward” in Panama built by the French, patients suffering from malaria and yellow fever were kept in hospital beds with the legs placed in cans of water in order to keep ants from crawling up. Sadly, these pails of water merely served to breed more mosquitoes that spread more malaria and yellow fever.

Armed with Dr. Finlay’s theory and Maj. Reed’s proof, by clearing standing water and using screens and fumigation to control mosquitoes, Colonel William Gorgas of the U.S. Army eradicated both yellow fever and malaria in Panama, and the Canal construction, one of the greatest human projects in history, went forward.  

While Walter Reed died in 1901 of appendicitis, the U.S. Army named its most important hospital for him, Walter Reed General Hospital, opened in 1909 in Washington, DC. 

Dr. Finlay lived until 1915 and thus saw the historic and life-saving application of his ideas. 

By controlling mosquitoes, two of the great scourges of mankind, yellow fever and malaria, were successfully controlled. While we here in the United States no longer worry about these diseases, both continue to afflict people around the world in impoverished areas that suffer from poor water drainage and sanitation and a lack of modern, controlled fresh water sources.

(I bet you didn’t think I’d get back to World Water Day!)

Wikipedia (various articles)

And here for an original article from 1897 by Italian Prof. Sanarelli claiming, incorrectly, that the bacillus iteroides bacterium was responsible for yellow fever:  Walter Reed proved Prof. Sanarelli wrong.

– Michael

Update: I just read that the rebuilding of Paris in the 1870’s with wide boulevards was intended to allow more sunlight onto the streets in order to reduce cholera outbreaks.

How to improve SAT test scores: Attack the Question!

When developing test-taking skills for standardized tests such as AP, ACT, and SAT tests there are usually two approaches:

  • Strategy no. 1: Improve on content knowledge & skills.
  • Strategy no. 2:  Employ test-taking strategies, such as skipping, annotating, anticipating answers, and elimination.

That’s all good and well, but there’s no single method to apply to every question. So what else can parents do to help students improve on standardized tests?

  • Strategy no. 3: Attack the Question

The Test Knows more than you?

This third approach emphasizes treating questions as sources of information, looking upon questions as giving, not taking.

All too often I hear from students that the test “knows more” than they do. What they’re saying is that they don’t trust themselves, and they end up second-guessing themselves or, worse, choosing incorrect answers simply because they don’t know the meaning of a word in it.

These students are not looking a the question as a source of information. They’re letting the question take — and not making it give.

So a very first place for improvement is to look upon…

Test Questions as Information

Effective test-takers will use information in the test, especially the questions. Questions are to them guidance and not an impediment.

Even the most basic question contains information:

Why is the sky blue?

Before answering the question, let’s see what it tells us:

  1. The sky is blue
  2. There is a reason for that.

Okay, great, but so what?

Well, that information is actually quite useful — if we look upon it as information and not a judgment about what we know or don’t know about the sky being blue.

If I don’t know what the sky or blue are, well, maybe here’s an opportunity to engage in a good skipping strategy.  Sometimes you just don’t know.

But just because I don’t know the direct answer, by looking at the question as a source of information I can begin to apply that information to something I do know:

  1. The sky is… the atmosphere.. it’s made up of, oxygen and other gasses, and clouds…  and clouds are water… sunlight bounces off the atmosphere…
  2. Blue is…  a primary color… blue light is high on the color frequencies…
  3. There is something about the sky, the color blue that combines to make the sky blue.

Having considered the information in the question and identifying what I know about it, I can now better employ our Strategy no. 2 of anticipation and elimination.

Just as importantly, since I have considered the question carefully, I will be less likely to be fooled by the possible wrong answers, many of which are designed precisely to mislead the student based upon an incorrect association with a word in the question. Thinking over the question deliberately helps me avoid that trap.

Attack the Qualifiers!

Once we get past the idea that the test “knows more than I do,” we can approach it as a useful instrument. Here Question Attack is essential.

Let’s go back to our question, “Why is the sky blue?”  Of course a standardized test will ask a more complex question,  but it’s never more complicated than a series of qualifications that limit or define a simple question, such as,

Why is the sky a lighter blue on the horizon than straight above?

First, we find information in the question

  1. The sky is blue
  2. The blue is lighter on the horizon than straight up
  3. There is something in the horizon that makes the sky a lighter blue.

Our simple question has now been qualified to a certain distinction, i.e., the difference between the color blue on the horizon and above.

Standardized test questions will always bring in some type of qualifier that defines the scope and purpose of the question. The effective test-taker will identify that qualifier and sort the information in the question according to it.

Typical qualifiers are “determiner” words such as “most,” “more,” “some,” etc.  Sometimes it comes in a prepositional phrase, such as “during the summer months…”

Again, possible wrong answers frequently tempt the test taker into making an incorrect association with a word or idea in the question, especially the qualifiers. By identifying the question qualifiers, we are less likely fooled.

Regardless the form, effective Question Attack will identify the qualifier and discern its impact on the information provided in the question.

Questions as Answers to Other Questions

If questions contain information, then it is likely that information will be used or repeated elsewhere on the test. We won’t notice it, however, if we’re looking at questions as a challenge rather than as a source of information.

This approach is less useful in SAT and ACT tests in which the textual material is random, however, on subject tests, such as AP tests and SAT subject tests, there will always be redundant information. The effective test taker will be aware of how to apply information in one question to answer another.

On the math side, it works the same, as math questions are often different forms of similar concepts, especially in the use of theorems or equations.

On the SAT and ACT tests, careful readers of test questions will identify repetition of required skills and concepts.

For example, in the SAT Writing section, a commonly addressed skill is appropriate use of semicolons, colons, dashes, and commas.  While the textual source will be different, the same concept will be tested multiple times.

For example, from the College Board Official SAT Practice Test 2, we find two questions at opposite ends of the Writing section on use of these punctuation marks:

It took me by surprise, then, when my favorite exhibit at the museum was one of it’s tiniest; the Thorne Miniature Rooms.

Her goals were straightforward, however: reduce waste, maintain and perpetuate knowledge and skills, and strengthen community.

If we compare what these questions are measuring, it helps remind us of the grammatical rules at work. In both sentences, we find  dependent secondary clauses, i.e., they do not stand as full sentences, which requires subject + verb. Therefore we know we are working with a list or example to extend or explain the first clause.

Whereas the first sentence is more straightforward in that the second clause provides an example (a list of one) to support the first, by remembering that rule, we can see through the more complex second sentence, which also provides examples or a list to support the first clause, only confused by inclusion of the unnecessary adverb, “however.”

Now that I have identified the concept or skill being measured, i.e., what punctuation mark sets up a list, and seeing multiple examples of it, I can better select the correct answer, which in both cases is a colon (only without the “however” in the second).

Slow Down, Be Thoughtful, Identify Question Expectations

Question Attack prevents the test taker from jumping straight into the possible answers, a fundamental mistake I see often in students. The temptation is to get through the test, so taking the time to consider the question seems annoying or unnecessary. It may also seem wasteful of time.

Actually, Question Attack preserves time, because it clarifies question expectations before getting lost in the wrong possible answers, which then throws the test taker back into the question for clarification — and wasting time.

Question Attack develops awareness, context, and allows for better application of prior knowledge.

In a next post, I will address effective strategies for elimination, which can only be employed upon careful consideration of the question itself.

Attack that Question, and raise your scores!

– Michael